Polusi Udara di Jakarta Justru Paling Parah di Pagi Hari

Polusi Udara di Jakarta Justru Pagi Hari

Tridinamika.com - 31/08/2022, 15:00 WIB

Ilustrasi Polusi Udara, Copyright by Pixabay

Tridinamika.com – Hasil riset salah satu lembaga pemerhati udara, Nafas Indonesia, sepanjang 2022 menyatakan sebanyak 75 persen warga Jabodetabek menganggap udara pagi lebih baik dibandingkan waktu lain.

Mengapa polusi di Jakarta justru ada di pagi hari ?

Biasanya udara pagi terasa segar dan dipilih oleh banyak warga menjadi waktu yang tepat untuk berolahraga. Namun, berdasarkan riset data lembaga Nafas Indonesia, daerah Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, dan Bekasi justru mencatat tingkat polusi udara yang tinggi dibandingkan pada siang atau sore. Hasil riset Nafas Indonesia sepanjang 2022 juga menyatakan sebanyak 75 persen warga Jabodetabek menganggap udara pagi lebih baik dibandingkan waktu lain.

“Polusi udara paling tinggi bisa di pagi hari, kaitannya dengan atmosfer juga. Ini sesuatu yang terjadi di semua kota urban, bukan cuma di Jakarta,” kata Co-founder Nafas Indonesia Piotr Jakubowski dalam sebuah kelas jurnalis yang digelar di Jakarta, Selasa (19/7/2022).

“Kita bukan ingin menyuruh orang berhenti melakukan gaya hidup sehat, justru data ini agar orang memahami pentingnya kualitas udara sehingga dia bisa memilih kapan waktu terbaik berolahraga,” sambungnya.

Menurut data Nafas Indonesia, waktu yang ideal untuk melakukan olahraga mulai pukul 14.00 hingga 17.00 WIB. Karena kualitas udara mengalami perbaikan mulai jam 11 siang hingga mengalami puncaknya di jam 3 sore.

Di bulan Juni 2022 kualitas udara DKI Jakarta selama satu bulan penuh selalu dalam kualitas buruk dengan kadar PM 2.5 melebihi standar Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO). Polusi PM 2.5 di bulan Juni juga paling tinggi terjadi di pagi hari.

Bahkan pada Senin pagi (18/7), menurut pantauan IQ Air, kualitas udara Jakarta masuk dalam kategori tidak sehat karena pada Particulate Matter (PM) 2.5 berada pada angka 111.5 mikrogram per meter kubik atau 22,3 kali standar WHO.

Apa penyebabnya ?

Aktifitas Rumah Tangga

Penggunaan cat dinding dan produk rumah tangga lainnya juga berpotensi menyebabkan polusi udara. Produk cat dinding mengandung volatile organic compounds (VOC) yang dapat membahayakan kesehatan, terutama pada anak-anak dan orang yang menderita asma atau alergi. Tingginya VOC dalam jangka waktu yang panjang akan menimbulkan masalah pada paru-paru.

Limbah Asap Pabrik
Copyright by Pixabay

Asap dari pembakaran hasil aktivitas industri menimbulkan polusi udara di luar ruang yang akan membahayakan kesehatan. Asap dari aktivitas industri yang keluar dari pabrik mengandung polutan seperti nitrogen oksida, sulfur dioksida, dan hidrokarbon. Ketika polutan tersebut menguap ke udara dan bercampur dengan uap air, maka akan berubah menjadi asam dan kemudian jatuh kembali ke bumi sebagai hujan asam.

Endapan kering yang terbentuk dari hujan asam dapat berdampak buruk terhadap kesehatan manusia seperti masalah pernapasan, sakit kepala, iritasi hidung dan mata. Selain itu, air keran yang terkontaminasi asam dapat merusak otak. Tingkat asam yang intensif dapat menimbulkan masalah kesehatan pada jantung dan paru-paru seperti asma dan bronkitis, hingga kanker.

Kebakaran Hutan

Asap kebakaran hutan yang terhirup dapat meningkatkan risiko gangguan kesehatan serius pada sistem pernapasan seperti asma, bronkitis, pneumonia, serta penyakit paru obstruktif kronis (PPOK). Campuran gas, zat kimia, partikel debu, dan bahan-bahan lain pada asap kebakaran hutan dapat menurunkan kualitas udara di wilayah sekitar bencana.

Akibatnya, penduduk yang tinggal di wilayah tersebut lebih berisiko mengalami masalah kesehatan jangka panjang karena kualitas udara yang buruk di antaranya penyakit ginjal, diabetes, masalah kesuburan, dan peningkatan tekanan darah. Beberapa penelitian juga menemukan adanya peningkatan risiko gangguan saraf seperti penyakit Alzheimer.

Copyright by Pixabay
Asap Kendaraan Bermotor

Asap kendaraan bermotor mengandung sulfur dioksida yang dapat membahayakan sistem pernapasan dan fungsi paru-paru. Sulfur dioksida yang menguap dan bercampur dengan air akan membentuk asam sulfat sebagai komponen utama hujan asam. Sebagaimana diketahui, hujan asam juga berdampak buruk terhadap kesehatan.

Senyawa lain yang terkandung dalam asap kendaraan juga seperti benzena, arsenik, dan formaldehyde yang memiliki sifat karsinogenik sehingga meningkatkan risiko kanker. Selain itu, beberapa penelitian menyebutkan asap kendaraan bermotor memiliki kaitan dengan penyakit otak dan saraf seperti stroke dan demensia.

Hingga tahun 2021, data WHO menunjukan belum ada satu negara pun yang berhasil memenuhi standar kualitas udara WHO. Hampir seluruh populasi global menghirup udara yang melebihi standar aman WHO akibat penyebab yang sudah dipaparkan. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan aksi strategis global termasuk perubahan perilaku masyarakat dalam menyikapi penyebab polusi udara guna melindungi kesehatan bersama.

Penting untuk masyarakat mendapatkan informasi penyebab utama polusi udara sehingga semua dapat berperan dan berkontribusi untuk menanggulanginya.

Bagaimana dampak kesehatan yang disebabkan oleh polusi udara ini?

Dihubungi terpisah, dr Erlang Samoedro, SpP dari Perhimpunan Dokter Paru Indonesia (PDPI) menyatakan kualitas udara yang buruk meningkatkan risiko infeksi saluran pernapasan akut (ISPA).

“Yang meningkat ketika udara bertambah buruk penyakit ISPA karena peradangan saluran napas oleh polusi,” ujarnya pada detikcom, Selasa (19/7/2022).

“Untuk mengurangi risiko udara kotor bisa menggunakan air purifier di dalam ruangan sedangkan kalau udara di luar kotor selalu gunakan masker,” pungkasnya.

Editor: Farhan

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